Endogenously Synthesized (−)-proto-Quercitol and Glycine Betaine Are Principal Compatible Solutes of Schizochytrium sp. Strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and Three New Isolates of Phylogenetically Related Thraustochytrids
AbstractEndogenously Synthesized (−)- proto -Quercitol and Glycine Betaine Are Principal Compatible Solutes of Schizochytrium sp. Strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and Three New Isolates of Phylogenetically Related Thraustochytrids ▿ Anita N. Jakobsen 1 , 3 , Inga M. Aasen 2 and Arne R. Strøm 1 , * 1 Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway 2 Department of Biotechnology, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway 3 Department of Food Technology, Sør-Trøndelag University College, NO-7004 Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT We report that endogenously synthesized (−)- prot o-quercitol (1 d -1,3,4/2,5-cyclohexanepentol) and glycine betaine were the principal compatible solutes of Schizochytrium sp. strain S8 (ATCC 20889) and three new osmotolerant isolates of thraustochytrids (strains T65, T66, and T67). The compatible solutes were identified and quantified by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and measurement of the specific optical rotation. The cellular content of compatible solutes increased with increasing NaCl concentration of a defined medium. (−)- proto -Quercitol was the dominating solute at all NaCl concentrations tested (0.25 to 1.0 M), e.g., cells of S8 and T66 stressed with 1.0 M NaCl accumulated about 500 μmol (−)- proto -quercitol and 100 μmol glycine betaine per g dry weight. To our knowledge, (−)- proto -quercitol has previously been found only in eucalyptus. The 18S rRNA gene sequences of the four (−)- proto -quercitol-producing strains showed 99% identity, and they displayed the same fatty acid profile. The only polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated were docosahexaenoic acid (78%) and docosapentaenoic acid (22%). A less osmotolerant isolate (strain T29), which was closely phylogenetically related to Thraustochytrium aureum (ATCC 34304), did not contain (−)- proto -quercitol or glycine betaine. Thus, the level of osmotolerance and the osmolyte systems vary among thraustochytrids.