BCR-ABL Prevents c-Jun-Mediated and Proteasome-Dependent FUS (TLS) Proteolysis through a Protein Kinase CβII-Dependent Pathway
AbstractBCR-ABL Prevents c-Jun-Mediated and Proteasome-Dependent FUS (TLS) Proteolysis through a Protein Kinase CβII-Dependent Pathway Danilo Perrotti 1 , * , Angela Iervolino 1 , Vincenzo Cesi 1 , Maria Cirinná 1 , Silvia Lombardini 2 , Emanuela Grassilli 1 , Silvia Bonatti 2 , Pier Paolo Claudio 1 , and Bruno Calabretta 1 , 2 , * Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, 1 and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of General Pathology, University of Modena, Modena, Italy 2 ABSTRACT The DNA binding activity of FUS (also known as TLS), a nuclear pro-oncogene involved in multiple translocations, is regulated by BCR-ABL in a protein kinase CβII (PKCβII)-dependent manner. We show here that in normal myeloid progenitor cells FUS, although not visibly ubiquitinated, undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation, whereas in BCR-ABL-expressing cells, degradation is suppressed by PKCβII phosphorylation. Replacement of serine 256 with the phosphomimetic aspartic acid prevents proteasome-dependent proteolysis of FUS, while the serine-256-to-alanine FUS mutant is unstable and susceptible to degradation. Ectopic expression of the phosphomimetic S256D FUS mutant in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-treated 32Dcl3 cells induces massive apoptosis and inhibits the differentiation of the cells escaping cell death, while the degradation-prone S256A mutant has no effect on either survival or differentiation. FUS proteolysis is induced by c-Jun, is suppressed by BCR-ABL or Jun kinase 1, and does not depend on c-Jun transactivation potential, ubiquitination, or its interaction with Jun kinase 1. In addition, c-Jun-induced FUS proteasome-dependent degradation is enhanced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 and depends on the formation of a FUS-Jun-hnRNP A1-containing complex and on lack of PKCβII phosphorylation at serine 256 but not on FUS ubiquitination. Thus, novel mechanisms appear to be involved in the degradation of FUS in normal myeloid cells; moreover, the ability of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein to suppress FUS degradation by the induction of posttranslational modifications might contribute to the phenotype of BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic cells.