ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Dependent Phospholipase D Activation by VPAC Receptors and a PAC1 Receptor Splice Variant
AbstractAbstract The VPAC 1 and VPAC 2 receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and the PAC 1 receptor for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide are members of a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We recently reported that phospholipase D (PLD) activation by members of the rhodopsin group of GPCRs occurs by at least two routes, one of which seems to involve the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and its physical association with GPCRs. Here we report that rat VPAC and PAC 1 receptors can also stimulate PLD (albeit less potently than adenylate cyclase) in transfected cells and also in cells where they are natively expressed. PLD responses of the VPAC receptors and the hop1 spice variant of the PAC 1 receptor but not its null form are sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of GTP exchange at ARF. The presence of the hop1 cassette in the rat PAC 1 receptor facilitates PLD activation in the absence of marked changes in ligand binding, receptor internalization, and adenylate cyclase activation, with some reduction in phospholipase C activation. Both VPAC 2 and PAC 1-hop1 (but not PAC 1-null ) receptors were shown to associate with immunoprecipitates directed against native or epitope-tagged ARF. A chimeric construct of the VPAC 2 receptor body with intracellular loop 3 (i3) of the PAC 1-null receptor mediated BFA-insensitive activation of PLD, whereas the response of the corresponding PAC 1-hop1 construct was BFA-sensitive. Motifs in i3 of the PAC 1-hop1 receptor may act as critical determinants of coupling to ARF-dependent PLD activation by contributing to the GPCR:ARF interface.